1. improved efficiency, accuracy and economic growth in

1. INTRODUCTIONThe Internet of Things (IoT) is evolving, growing and becoming popular day by day; in the today’s world, around 5 billion objects have connected through the internet. In 2020, it has estimated that near about 50 billion objects will be connected to the internet. So that IoT is a broad term that describes the interconnection of different daily life objects through the internet. In the concept of IoT every object is connected with each other through a unique identifier so that it can transfer data over the network without a human to the human interaction. IoT has referred as a network of everyday objects having ubiquitous computing. The ubiquity of the objects has increased by integrating every object with embedded system for interaction. It connects human and devices through a highly distributed network. IoT is basically the world wide interconnection of devices. The aim of IoT is to connect every person and every object through the internet. In IoT, every object is assigned a unique identifier, so that every object is accessible through the internet. The “Internet of things” (IoT) is becoming a rapidly growing idea of conversation both in the workplace and besides of it. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, automated and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided mutually unique identifiers and the right to relinquish data around a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. The IoT allows objects subsequent sensed or controlled remotely across actual network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more clear integration of the physical reality into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic growth in basic principle to reduced human intervention. Each capability is uniquely identifiable at the hand of its confined computing system but is experienced to inter maintain within the actual Internet infrastructure.Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and covers a variety of protocols, domains, and applications {E1}. IoT is has been described by various notions such as- “a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘Things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network”- “3A concept: anytime, anywhere and any media, resulting into sustained ratio between radio and man around 1:1″{IMP}- IoT combines people, process, device and technology with sensors and actuators. This overall integration of IoT with human being in respect to communications, collaboration and technical analytics enables to pursue real-time decision. Fig 1.Modern day agriculture and civilization together demand increased production of food to feed the global population. New technologies and solutions are being applied in agricultural domain to provide an optimal alternative to gather and process information while enhancing net productivity. At the same time, the alarming climate change and increasing water crisis demand new and improved methodologies for modern age agricultural and farming fields. Automation and intelligent decision making are also becoming more important to accomplish this mission. In this regard, Internet of Things (IoT), ubiquitous computing, wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks, Radio Frequency Identifier, cloud computing, remote sensing, etc. technologies are becoming increasingly popular.Various motivational factors have influenced to script this article as mentioned below.- Among others, the agriculture domain is mostly explored area of concerning the application of IoT in improving the traditional methods of farming. The rapid growth in nanotechnology that took place in last decade, has enabled the creation of small and cheap sensors.- The self-contained nature of operation, together with modular sized hardware platforms, scalable, and cost-effective technologies, has enabled the IoT as a potential tool towards the target of self-organized, decision making, and automation in the agriculture cum farming industry. In this regard, precision agriculture, automated irrigation scheduling , optimization of plant growth, farm land monitoring, green-house monitoring, and farming production process management in crops, are among a few key applications.- However, IoT is in nascent stage of development, hence it has a few limitations such as interoperability, heterogeneity, memory constrained hardware platforms, and security.- These limitations invite challenges in the design of IoT applications in agriculture. In agriculture, most of the IoT based applications are targeted for various applications. For example, IoT for environmental condition monitoring with information of soil nutrients is applied for predicting crop health and production quality over time. Irrigation scheduling is predicted with IoT by monitoring the soil moisture and weather conditions.- Being scalable, the performance of an existing IoT based application can be improved to monitor more parameters by only including additional sensor nodes to the existing architecture.- The issues present in such applications are centered on the device interoperability, technology heterogeneity, security, measurement interval, and routing protocols.- In the overall scenario, the IoT based farming solutions need to be of very low cost to be affordable by end users. However, with the increasing population, the demand of food-grain is exponentially rising. A recent report warns that the growth in food grain production is less than the growth in population. This has led the researchers to demand to boost production by incorporating advanced technologies. As per a recent report published by Food and Agriculture Organization, food grain requirements in world shall touch 3 billion tons by 2050. Consequently, new and modern technologies are being considered in many agricultural applications to achieve the target. This pace needs to be accelerated by incorporating IoT while making the agriculture smart and definite in nature.2. IoT in AgricultureIndia is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the most important occupation for the most of the Indian families. It plays vital role in the development of agricultural country. The concept of Smart Agriculture is becoming a reality as it evolves from conceptual models for the development of crop at different stages. Previously the agriculture is the cultivation of the plants which is used to sustain and enhance human life. Now days the Smart Agriculture has come into the picture globally. Smart Agriculture is nothing but the usage of the resources in a smarter way. Resources include sustainable land usage, fresh water usage, and usage of pesticides and insecticides which increases the crop production and supports the farmers’ income.The IoT contributes significantly towards innovating farming methods. Farming challenges caused by population growth and climate change have made it one of the first industries to utilize the IoT. The integration of wireless sensors with agricultural mobile apps and cloud platforms helps in collecting vital information pertaining to the environmental conditions – temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, soil quality, pest infestation, soil humus content or nutrients, besides others – linked with a farmland, can be used to improve and automate farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, and minimize risks and wastes. The app-based field or crop monitoring also lowers the hassles of managing crops at multiple locations. For example, farmers can now detect which areas have been fertilised or mistakenly missed, if the land is too dry and predict future yields. {wiki} The key advantages of using IoT in enhancing farming are as follows:1. Water management can be efficiently done using IoT with no wastage of water using sensors.2. IoT helps to continuous monitor the land so that precautions can be taken at early stage.3. It increases productivity, reduce manual work, reduce time and makes farming more efficient.4. Crop monitoring can be easily done to observe the growth of crop.5. Soil management such as PH level, Moisture content etc. can be identified easily so that farmer can sow seeds according to soil level.6. Sensors and RFID chips aids to recognize the diseases occurred in plants and crops. RFID tags send the EPC (information) to the reader and are shared across the internet. The farmer or scientist can access this information from a remote place and take necessary actions; automatically crops can be protected from coming diseases.7. Crop sales will be increased in global market. Farmer can easily connect to the global market without restriction of any geographical area.2.1 IoT Functional BlocksAn IoT system is comprised of a number of functional blocks to facilitate various utilities to the system such as, sensing, identification, actuation, communication, and management. Fig.1 presents these functional blocks as described below.- Device: An IoT system is based on devices that provide sensing, actuation, control, and monitoring activities. IoT devices can exchange data with other connected devices and application, or collect data from other devices and process the data either locally or send the data to centralized servers or cloud based applications backends for processing the data, or perform some tasks locally and other tasks within IoT infrastructure based on temporal and space constraints (i.e., memory, processing capabilities, communication latencies, and speeds, and deadlines). The structure of device is given in Fig. 2 2. An IoT device may consist of several interfaces for communications to other devices, both wired and wireless. These include (i) I/O interfaces for sensors, (ii) interfaces for Internet connectivity, (iii) memory and storage interfaces and (iv) Audio/Video interfaces. IoT devices can also be of varied types, for instance, wearable sensors, smart watches, LED lights, automobiles and industrial machines. Almost all IoT devices generate data in some form of the other which when processed by data analytics systems generate leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely, For instance, sensor data generated by a soil moisture monitoring device in a garden, when processed can help in determining the optimum watering schedules.- Communication: The communication block performs the communication between devices and remote servers. IoT communication protocols generally work in data link layer, network layer, transport layer, and application layer. – Services: An IoT system serves various types of functions such as services for device modeling, device control, data publishing, data analytics, and device discovery.- Management: Management block provides different functions to govern an IoT system to seek the underlying governance of IoT system.- Security: Security functional block secures the IoT system by providing functions such as, authentication, authorization, privacy, message integrity, content integrity, and data security.- Application: Application layer is the most important in terms of users as it acts as an interface that provides necessary modules to control, and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Applications allow users to visualize, and analyze the system status at present stage of action, sometimes prediction of futuristic prospects.2.2 IoT Agricultural Framework This section provides a detailed framework to cater full-fledged agricultural-solutions using IoT (Fig. 3). The presented framework is a six layered concept which includes hardware facilities, Internet and allied communication technologies, IoT middleware; IoT enabled cloud services, big data analytics, and farmer experience in full notion.- Physical Layer: This is the bottom most layer that comprises of different types of sensors, actuators, microcontroller modules, and other network equipments such as gateways, router, switches etc. Sensing of environment parameters, actuating according to the predefined tasks, and processing the whole ground level jobs are done here. Microcontroller is key part of this layer which holds the supervisory role over the networking related functionalities and other operations (done by sensors and actuators). Transferring the processed root-level data to higher abstraction layers is the main task of this layer. – Network Layer: This layer comprises of Internet and other relevant communication technologies. Wi-Fi, GSM, CDMA, LTE (4G) technologies are prevalent to act in agricultural fields in appropriate manner. ZigBee is one of the most suitable enablers that sorts out the long range communication when none of the GSM/CDMA/LTE services are present. HTTP, WWW, SMTP protocols suits the pavement of Internet facility in agricultural scenario.- Middleware Layer: IoT based middleware do perform device management, context awareness, interoperation, platform portability, and security related tasks. Various types of middleware are such as HYDRA, UBIWARE, UBIROAD, and SMEPP are best at context aware functionality; on other hand, SOCRADES, GSN, SIRENA etc. are good at implementing security and user privacy in their architecture.- Service Layer: IoT cloud assisted service layer plays crucial role in providing cloud storage and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) to agricultural problems. Sensor data acquisition, equipment identification, crop disease information storage, and statistical analysis services are paved to facilitate the sensing, actuating, and disease identification activities. Besides, livestock management, field crop plantation management, pesticide control, automatic cattle gaze monitoring services are meant to create value from agriculture data. Farmer can get information through web service, message service, and expert services. Image and video analysis of the received data help in real time monitoring of on demand services. For instance, farmer wants to know about the cattle gazing in the field, soil condition  by virtual imagery, and insect intrusion in to the fields etc. User friendly, web based control panel leverages all the necessary requirements from the farmer side to solve through numerous services. – Analytics Layer: In this layer, big data processing is performed to necessitate predictive analysis and multi-cultural analytics. Prediction is meant for measuring probabilistic chance of yield productivity in next season. Farmer may know about the futuristic climatic condition of the filed area including soil moisture, temperature, heat, light intensity, rain fall etc in advance. This results in taking precaution to save crop field. Detection capability is provided here to predict the probable situation of occurrence various crop disease based on the past data. Farmer can understand the behavior and pattern of pest attack and weed origination in the field. Agrologistics facility has been added to predict the optimized cost for maintenance of the vehicles such as tractors etc. and how these vehicles are used to increase the profit margin by selling the products in the market. This has a strong impact on the retention ratio of crop and vegetables as a large percentage get rotten due to lack of utilization in timely manner. Prediction may also be used to know about the profit or loss statement that may happen in coming season. Hence, big data analytics is suitable for agricultural aspects to minimize several risk factors in scientific way. One important level of multi culture analytics is also introduced into the framework to formulate, process, and efficiently manage a few forms of farming. Aquaculture may be equipped with big data analytics to ascertain the growth rate of water featured botanics. The same could be initiated to predict the fish breeding, and growth in pisciculture. Horticulture, floriculture, and citriculture when enabled with big data analytics may get direct benefit of decision making regarding seasonal growth, pest control, and profit margin analysis for fruits, flowers, and citric fruits such as lemon etc. Vermiculture is used to rear or cultivate of earthworms. Vermicompost is an organic fertilizer that is originated after vermiculture. Forest being important part of human life, silviculture may be efficiently practiced to control the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to validate various needs of population. Big data can enhance the forest growing process by utilizing environmental data analysis. Arboriculture is a special form of cultivation that is related to shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Big data analytics could be implied over it to know how these plants grow and respond to their environment through statistical modeling. Olericulture has the capacity to predict the growth rate of vegetable plants for food consumption of human society. Big data analytics may help in simulating the water needs, along with temperature and proper fertilization to enhance the productivity of herbaceous plants.