1. How do theories advance Psychological science?Theories in psychology use certain principles to collect observations and figure out their hypothesis. They can then check the theory or make practical steps by using their predictions. After testing their hypothesis they can the confirm, dismiss, or revise the theory. Research is then recorded so that others can repeat or add to the study.2. How do psychologists use naturalistic observation, case studies and surveys to observe and describe behavior, and why is random sampling important?Naturalistic observations, case studies and surveys can show us what can happen, and they could possibly offer ideas into furthering the study. The best basis for generalizing about a population is a representative sample. For a random sample, everyone in the population being studied has an equal chance of participating. While descriptive methods cannot show cause and effect because researchers cannot control variables.3. What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause and effect explanation?Positive correlation- two factors rising or falling, together.Negative correlation- one rises while the other falls.Cannot predict cause and effect because it can only describe the strength and relationship between 2 variables, +1.00 “a positive correlation” through zero “no correlation at all” to ?1.00 “a negative correlation”.4. What are the characteristics of experimentation that make it possible to isolate cause and effect?-Experiment research method is when an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe its effect in behavior,while controlling other relevant factors. -In many experiments, control is achieved by randomly assigning people to an experimental group, which is exposed to the treatment, or a control group, which is not exposed. -Independent variable: the experimental factor that is manipulated. It is the variable whose effect is being studies. -Dependent variable: variable that may change in response to the manipulations of the independent variable5. Why do psychologist study animals?While some psychologists are primarily interested in animal behavior itself; others want to better understand the physiological and psychological processes shared by humans and other species.Government agencies have established the necessary standards for animal care and housing. Professional associations and funding agencies also establish guidelines for protecting animals’ well-being.6. What are psychology’s main or major perspectives?5 major perspectives in psychology are biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic and cognitive.