Akshay a way for computers to begin to


Akshay Nilawar1, Harpreet Kaur
Parmar2, Pradnya Shilvant3

Student, Electronics &

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 Sinhgad institute of technology and Science

 Pune, India1,2,3

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

Niranjan S. Kulkarni4

Assistant Professor, Electronics &

 Sinhgad institute of technology and Science

Pune, India4

[email protected]




Abstract— Robots
are playing a vital role in today’s industrial automation and monitoring
systems. As, technology developed these robots have increased there application
and functionality1. A gesture is a movement that you make with a part of your
body, especially your hands, to express emotion or information. Gesture
recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begin to understand human
body language, thus building a richer bridge between machines and humans than
primitive text user interfaces or even graphical user interfaces which limit
the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Gesture recognition enables humans
to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical
devices. A Gesture Controlled robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled
by your hand gestures not by old buttons.Emerging application of robots in
agriculture include weed control, harvesting, environmental monitoring and soil
analysis. The main reason behind automation of farming processes are saving the
time and energy required for performing repititive farming tasks3. With each
passing day the gap between machines and human is being reduced with the
introduction of new technologies to ease the standard of living. Gestures have
played a vital role in diminishing this abyss2. In this project we describe
about the gesture controlled robot which can be controlled by your normal hand
gestures. It consists of mainly two parts, one is transmitter part and other is
receiver part. The transmitter transmits the signal acccording to the position
of accelerometer and your hand gesture and receiver will receive the signal and
make the robot move in respective directon. 


Accelerometer, Gesture recognition, Ultrasonic sensor.


A robot is a mechanical device that can perform tasks automatically.
Some robots require some degree of guidance, which may be done using a remote
control, or with a computer interface or can be controlled by gestures. A robot
is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a program or
circuitry. In general, robotics can be divided into two areas, industrial and
service robotics4. International Federation of Robotics (IFR) defines a service robot as
a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful
to the well being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations4. These
robots are currently used in many fields of applications including office,
military tasks, hospital operations, dangerous environment and agriculture4.Agricultural
robots or agbot is a robot deployed for agricultural purposes. The main area of
application of robots in agriculture today is at the harvesting stage. Emerging
applications of robots in agriculture include weed control, planting seeds,
harvesting, environmental monitoring and soil analysis.In this paper we
automate the process of sowing crops such as groundnut, sunflower, baby corn
and so on. The farming system like ploughing, cultivating, weeding, harvesting,
etc are the different process. All the processes are advance to modifying the
mechanism in farming which works automatically without the man power
requirement. The small machine would be assembled from existing mass-produced
components without the need of specialized design and tooling. Also, energy
require to this machine is less as compared with tractors or any agricultural
instrument. Seeding preparation is our day to day life we use tractor in farms.
But it requires more time and the man shortage is faced continuously parts are
controlled by microcontroller.Recent researches in this field have made wireless gesture controlling a
ubiquitous phenomenon, it needs to acquire more focus in relevant areas of
applications like home appliances, wheelchairs, artificial nurses, agriculture
in a collaborative manner2.

Literature  Survey

Robots are widely
used in machineries, industries, medical field etc which are automated robots.
Even in agriculture robots are used to perform mission like fruit picking,
ploughing and harvesting. But these robots are pre-defined where mechanism and
performance are already assigned. By these robots there is a possibility of
occurring malfunction. If a robot went erroneous that will cause many damages
so automated robots always have the drawbacks whereas in case of self operated
robot breakdown and exertion can be prohibited1. Motion technology
facilitates humans to interact with machines naturally without any
interventions caused by the drawbacks of mechanical devices. Using the concept
of gesture recognition, it is possible to move a robot accordingly2. A
rigorous analysis of different techniques of “Human-Machine Interaction” using
gestures has been presented2. Gestures can be captured with the help of an
accelerometer, however, with the evolution of smartphone its independent usage
has been rendered useless2.Accelerometer based system which controls a
Robotic car wirelessly using a  small,
3-axis accelerometer via RF signals. Many existing technologies and transmission
medium use only Radio Frequency because RF can travel through larger distance
than Infra Red1.


In this proposed paper,we are presenting that the farm
cultivation process in autonomous agriculture system which is controlled by
microcontroller assembly. The technique of seed preparation in ploughed land is
based on row per column depending on the types of cultivation. An accelerometer
(hand gesture ) is used to control the robot position .  The main part of the robot technique is
sensor part .The sensor perform to identifying obstacles as well as the
completion of farm for end of the land and then turn the position of robot
either in left or right or forward direction . Then remotely we have to control
the robot with hand gesture . The system includes three blocks Transmitter,Robot1,Robot2
controlled by microcontroller. The heart of the system is microcontroller. It
is the main control block and other control blocks are interfaced with the
controller.The battery power supply goes to the microcontroller with the help
of voltage regulator by convert the constant power.The transmitter module,an
accelerometer is used to generate a hand gesture.The output of accelerometer is
given to a microcontroller.The microcontroller finds the the position of hand
and sends command to the either robot  1
or robot2 to move the robot.A RF transmitter transmits the 4 bit data The
operation of dc motor is based on electromagnetic, to give the energy to the
robot vehicle. The driver circuit is used for giving the constant voltage to
the DC motor and the motor will turn in both the forward and reverse direction.
When the DC motor is start’s, vehicle moves along the particular column of
ploughed land for seeding, closing the pits and side by side sprinkling the
water. The ultrasonic sensor is connected to the front edge of robot; other are
at left and right side for controlling the movement of vehicle.In the
transmitter module an accelerometer is used to generate a hand gesture.The
output of accelerometer is given to a microcontroller.The microcontroller finds
the the position of hand and sends command to the either robot 1 or robot 2 to
move the robot.A RF receiver is used to receive 4 bit data . The
microcontroller receives the 4 bit data and moves the robot in a direction
received from transmitter part . The robot starts dispensing the seeds as soon
as it starts motion using seed dispenser.If robot reaches to the end it stops.An
ultrasonic sensor finds any obstacle or end of the field. If robot needs seed for
sowing it sends the command for help to another robot through wifi
transreceiver module.

     The human hand
movement is detected by an accelerometer,when the gesture of the hand is
towards the ground the capacitance between the moving plate and the stationary
plate decreases as the dielectric (i.e. Air) between them is reduced thus the
signal is sent to the microcontroller in analog form.The recived analog signal
is then given to inbuilt ADC (Analog to Digital) of the microcontroller then
the microcontroller process the signal and then gives the signal to the RF
module,the RF module will receive the signal from microcontroller which
operates at 433KHz.Both the robots present in the farms communicate with each
other with the help of WIFI by continously sending the data and their current
positions.The signal received from the transmitter side in the form of digital
4 bit data this data is then given to the microcontroller and then
microcontroller further processes it and then sents the signal to the lifting
mechanism and wheel rotating driver. The wheel rotating driver i.e. L293D
amplifies the recived signal and gives to the robot and seed dispenser.The received
signal sent from the microcontroller is given to the lifting arm mechanism and
then further passed to the robot lifting arm.The proposed
block diagram is shown in figures.





Fig 1: Transmitter Side














Fig 2: Receiver Side Robot 1
and 2.



Transmitter side when hand position is kept horizontal the x and y outputs
should be 1.68v, output of microcontroller to ht12e encoder will be 4bit and
when hand is tilted to the front/back side voltage generated should be 1volt,
output of microcontroller to ht12e encoder will be 4bit respectively and also
when hand was tilted to the left/right side the voltage should be 3volts output
of microcontroller to ht12e encoder will be 4bit respectively.In Receiver side
when data is received by ht12d decoder where hand position is horizontal then
motor will stop, when data will be received by ht12d decoder where hand is
tilted front/back side then motor will move in forward direction/reverse
direction respectively, when data will be received by ht12d decoder where hand
is tilted in left/right motor will move in left direction/right direction


This paper has
presented the progress made towards achieving a future precision autonomous
farming system.The assembly is developed for sowing the seeds by hand gestures
using robot.This project consists of two different mechanisms.The first
mechanism contains sowing seeds and the second mechanism contains communication
among robots for seed sharing. 


The system can
futher be modified by use of IP camera for monitoring robots or by GSM
module.In place of gestures, development of android app can be made to direct
the robot. 




K. Ashok Kumar and K.
Thamizharasi “Gesture Controlled Robot For Eradication Of Weeds”, Indian
Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 8(5), 460–465, March 2015.

Monika Jain, Aditi, Ashwani
Lohiya, Mohammad Fahad Khan, Abhishek Maurya,”Wireless Gesture Control Robot An
Analysis”,International Journal of Advanced         Research in Computer and Communication
Engineering Vol. 1, Issue 10, December 2012

Neha S. Naik, Virendra. V.
Shete, “Precision Agriculture Robot For Seeding Function”, International
Journal of Advanced Research in

Computer and Communication Engineering 2015.

Ashutosh Pattnaik Rajiv
Ranjan,”Robotic Arm Control Through Human Arm Movement Using Accelerometers” ,
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.