Total Marks: 20
Lecture no 31-38
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Question No. 1
Explain in detail the steps for Learning
Experiences’ Evaluation? (10 marks)
Concept of Evaluation:
In every walk of life the process of
evaluation takes place in one or the other form. If the evaluation process is
eliminated from human life then perhaps the aim of life may be lost. It is only
through evaluation that one can discriminate between good and bad. The whole
cycle of social development revolves around the evaluation process.
In education how much a child has succeeded
in his aims, can only be determined through evaluation. Thus there is a close
relationship between evaluation and aims.
Let us discuss its uses briefly:
Evaluation is concerned with assessing the
effectiveness of teaching, teaching strategies, methods and techniques. It
provides feedback to the teachers about their teaching and the learners about
The improvement in courses/curricula, texts
and teaching materials is brought about with the help of evaluation.
Evaluation provides accountability to
society in terms of the demands and requirements of the employment market.
Evaluation mainly manifests itself in a
perceived need for regular reporting to parents.
In brief, evaluation is a very important
requirement for the education system. It fulfils various purposes in systems of
education like quality control in education, selection/entrance to a higher
grade or tertiary level.
It also helps one to take decisions about
success in specific future activities and provides guidance to further studies
and occupation. Some of the educationists view evaluation virtually synonymous
with that of learner appraisal, but evaluation has an expanded role.
It plays an effective role in questioning
or challenging the objectives.
A simple representation explaining the role
of evaluation in the teaching-learning process is shown below:
Role of Evaluation in the Teaching-Learning
Evaluation has its four different aspects
(ii) Learning experiences,
(iii) Learner appraisal and the and
(iv) Relationship between the three.
and Defining General Objectives:
In the evaluation process first step is to
determine what to evaluation, i.e., to set down educational objectives. What
kind of abilities and skills should be developed when a pupil studies, say,
Mathematics, for one year? What type of understanding should be developed in
the pupil who learns his mother tongue? Unless the teacher identifies and
states the objectives, these questions will remain unanswered.
The process of identifying and defining
educational objectives is a complex one; there is no simple or single procedure
which suits all teachers. Some prefer to begin with the course content, some
with general aims, and some with lists of objectives suggested by curriculum
experts in the area.
While stating the objectives, therefore, we
can successfully focus our attention on the product i.e., the pupil’s
behaviour, at the end of a course of study and state it in terms of his
knowledge, understanding, skill, application, attitudes, interests,
and Defining Specific Objectives:
It has been said that learning is the
modification of behaviour in a desirable direction. The teacher is more
concerned with a student’s learning than with anything else. Changes in
behaviour are an indication of learning. These changes, arising out of
classroom instruction, are known as the learning outcome.
What type of learning outcome is expected
from a student after he has undergone the teaching-learning process is the
first and foremost concern of the teacher. This is possible only when the teacher
identifies and defines the objectives in terms of behavioural changes, i.e.,
These specific objectives will provide
direction to teaching-learning process. Not only that it will also be useful in
planning and organising the learning activities, and in planning and organising
evaluation procedures too.
Thus, specific objectives determine two
things; one, the various types of learning situations to be provided by the
class teacher 10 his pupils and second, the method to be employed to evaluate
both—the objectives and the learning experiences.
The next step in the process of evaluation
is to select teaching points through which the objectives can be realised. Once
the objectives are set up, the next step is to decide the content (curriculum,
syllabus, course) to help in the realisation of objectives.
For the teachers, the objectives and
courses of school subjects are ready at hand. His job is to analyse the content
of the subject matter into teaching points and to find out what specific
objectives can be adequately realised through the introduction of those
Suitable Learning Activities:
In the fourth step, the teacher will have
to plan the learning activities to be provided to the pupils and, at the same
time, bear two things in mind—the objectives as well as teaching points. The
process then becomes three dimensional, the three co-ordinates being
objectives, teaching points and learning activities. The teacher gets the
objectives and content readymade.
He is completely free to select the type of
learning activities. He may employ the analytico-synthetic method; he may
utilise the inducto-deductive reasoning; he may employ the experimental method
or a demonstration method; or he may put a pupil in the position of a
discoverer; he may employ the lecture method; or he may ask the pupils to
divide into groups and to do a sort of group work followed by a general
discussion; and so on. One thing he has to remember is that he should select
only such activities as will make it possible for him to realise his
In the fifth step, the teacher observes and
measures the changes in the behaviour of his pupils through testing. This step
adds one more dimension to the evaluation process. While testing, he will keep
in mind three things-objectives, teaching points and learning activities; but
his focus will be on the attainment of objectives. This he cannot do without
enlisting the teaching points and planning learning activities of his pupils.
Here the teacher will construct a test by
making the maximum use of the teaching points already introduced in the class
and the learning experiences already acquired by his pupils. He may plan for an
oral lest or a written test; he may administer an essay type test or an
objective type of lest; or he may arrange a practical test.
the Results as Feedback:
The last, but not the least, important step
in the evaluation process is the use of results as feedback. If the teacher,
after testing his pupils, finds that the objectives have not been realised to a
great extent, he will use the results in reconsidering the objectives and in
organising the learning activities.
He will retrace his steps to find out the
drawbacks in the objectives or in the learning activities he has provided for
his students. This is known as feedback. Whatever results the teacher gets
after testing his pupils should be utilised for the betterment of the students.
Question No. 2
How instruments for evaluation are
developed? Explain with two examples. (10 marks)
Measuring & Evaluating Teaching
Effective teaching can be defined, very
simply, as activities that promote student learning. It encompasses all of
those instructor behaviours that foster student learning of the instructor’s
and/or of the institution’s educational objectives. Ideally, the students will
also share at least some of these objectives. This definition of effective
teaching includes curriculum and course development, advising, and supervision
of student research as well as classroom performance. Given this broad
definition, no single approach is sufficient for evaluating effective teaching.
Rather, student ratings, self-reviews, peer evaluations, and objective criteria
such as student performances and improvements are all useful tools for
evaluating different aspects of teaching.
The sources fall into three main types:
students, peers, and the instructor him/herself (through self-reflection).
Since measuring teaching is clearly not an exact science, the more varied the
data sources, the more useful the measurement is likely to be.
Sources of information about teaching
The following is a list of some important
sources of information about teaching and their main advantages and
disadvantages for evaluation purposes.
Systematic student evaluations
These are very important for a global
picture of the course. The students are the ones who are doing the learning, so
their perception is important. Their response often highlights strengths and
weaknesses. However, students are not subject matter experts. Also, students’
ratings are sometimes influenced by their own motivations, attitudes and needs.
Interviews with students
This is a very useful evaluation procedure
which can yield much information in a short time. A group of students from a
course are interviewed by other faculty about their experience in a course. A
structured format is followed and typically, a consensus view of the nature of
the course — its strengths, weaknesses, and problems — emerges in 15 to 20
minutes. The difficulties with this technique are associated with the training
needed to do the interviews and report the results, and the selection and
recruitment of the sample of students interviewed.
Long-term follow-up of students
Surveys or interviews with seniors and
alumni can yield information based on a wider context of university and life
experience than given by the usual end-of-course student survey.
A very simple tool for checking effective
teaching is to incorporate specific questions within a lesson to gauge student
understanding of the material. For example, an instructor may ask students to
verbally answer a question similar to one that will be asked on an exam. This
tool is more useful than simply asking if students have any questions because
students who are confused may not be able to articulate their questions.
Moreover, some students may falsely believe they understand the lesson and not
ask questions. Checking for understanding within a lesson helps the instructor
discover students’ level of learning and to make adjustments during the lesson
Classroom Response Systems:
A problem with simple questioning is that
an instructor generally will get a response from only one or two students
rather than the entire class. This problem can be resolved with a few
strategies that fall under the Classroom Response umbrella.
The first strategy is the easiest to
implement. An instructor asks a multiple choice question or makes an
agree/disagree statement about the material. Students indicate by the position
of their thumb whether they believe the answer is A (upright), B (sideways), or
C (downward) or Agree (upright) or Disagree (downward). The instructor can then
quickly look around the room to determine how many students have the correct
The second strategy involves the use of
colored index cards. Its method is identical to the first strategy except that
the instructor is using color coded cards for the responses. The advantage of
using colored index cards is that they are easier to see than thumbs.
The third strategy involves the use of
hand-held remote controls (“clickers”) to measure student responses. The
technology is linked to software in a computer—either a laptop or a classroom
computer—and can keep a record of student responses. Many instructors use this
technology by imbedding the question into their presentation software. Both the
instructor and students receive immediate feedback to the responses. In
addition to the recordkeeping aspect of this system, a primary advantage of
clickers is student anonymity in their responses in the classroom. A major
disadvantage is the cost and performance reliability of the clickers
Open Class Discussion:
This technique can be used either during
the class session or by monitoring student online discussion. By asking
discussion questions that require critical thought, instructors are able to
gauge students’ understanding of the lesson material and whether they are
making necessary connections to other course material. Many times students
believe they know the material but their misunderstandings are revealed during
This evaluation tool is done at the end of
class several times during the quarter. It derives its name from the fact that
students spend no more than one minute answering any number of questions. The
instructor reads the responses before the next class meeting and responds
appropriately. Examples of questions asked are