Introduction in terms of scavenging for nutrients, and

Introduction

When microbes attach to
living and non -living tissues they form bio-films which adhere to the surface
irreversibly and produce extracellular polymers which help it to attach to the
surface and provide a structural matrix. 1.A biofilms thickness can range
from a single cell layer to a large complex community of multilayers. The intricate
network of channels flows through these structures providing essential
nutrients to even the deepest regions of the biofilms. Although a biofilm can
arise from a single cell due to the difference in environmental conditionsG1 G2 G3  – a difference
in nutrients and oxygen can differentiate into distinct subpopulationsG4  due
to heterogeneous gene expression. By being immobile and attached to the surface
these biofilms have a greater advantage over planktonic micro-organisms (freely
suspended) in terms of scavenging for nutrients, and ability to evade multiple
clearance mechanisms produced by host and synthetic sources.
Examples of ineffective clearances strategies include anti-microbial,
anti-fouling agents, host cell phagocytotic elimination and host radical and
protease defenses 6. This poses a variety of problems for public
health.G5 

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G6 Mode of infectionG7 G8 

Staphylococcus aureus is
gram positive bacteria and studies have shown that they infect through the
nasal carriage from where it gets spread to the rest of the body. Once it
enters into to the host it either is killed by the host’s innate response or attaches to the host
extracellular matrix and causes the physiology of the cells to transform into
one which is similar to the G9 biofilm,
this causes a very swift development and exhibition of multiple-antibiotic
resistance causing an acute infection to transform into one that is persistent
and chronic.6.These biofilms also develop within medical devices. In medical
devices, staphylococcus enters through various entry ports likeG10  the skin of G11 patients, tap water or other sources
from the environment. These biofilms may compose of
a single spice or multiple spices depending upon the duration of the exposure.G12 G13 
In case of wounds especially chronic ones, easily get infected with bacteria
and these bacteria tend to form biofilms which are highly resistant to the
immune system and this also makes it anti-biotic resistant causing serious
healthcare issues and also in some extreme cases death.Traditionally these
antibiotics/antiseptics were used so as to prevent the bacteria from seeping
from the wound to deeper tissues but due to an increased risk G14 G15 in the use of these anti-microbial,
it has G16 caused the bacteria to develop
resistance towards them.Biofilms also form on food processing and storage units
leading to food spoilage.Thousands of people each year fall sick due to
contamination of food caused due to biofilmsG17 

Methods
to treat the infectionG18 G19 G20 G21 

Various methods are being
used to combat these biofilm-related infectionsG22 , one of the more recent methods
developed is the usage of rotating magnetic fields RMF) to increase the
activity of antimicrobials against wound biofilms. In this method commonly used
antimicrobials were administered in presence of RMFs of 10-50 Hz and the
biomass for before and after the usage was observed. The experiment was
conducted in such a way each anti-microbial was tested individually in presence
of the RMF for a varying duration of time and the results were tabulated. The results showed a statistically
significant increase of antimicrobial-mediated reduction of biofilm exposed
which was sensitized by RMF. The
rationale behind this is the fact that magnetic fields influence all
electrically charged particles. Biofilm
adherence is mediated by adhesins, extracellular matrix, and by cells which are
all electrically charged particles. 2Another method developed is the usage of
mesenchymal stem cell to help boost the host’s immune activity to combat
these biofilms in case of implant infections. Activated MSC
which are co-administered with antibiotic therapy was found to accumulate in the woundG23  margins several days after administration.
Macrophages in infected tissues assumed an M2 phenotype, compared to untreated
infections which contained predominately M1 macrophages. Bacterial killing by
MSC was found to be mediated in part by secretion of cathelicidin and was
significantly increased by antibiotics 3.Individually administered
anti-microbial or MSC did not show any significant results but when
administered together showed some significant results. To reduce the potential
risk of biofilms forming in the tubing of various medical tubing the effects of
peracetic acid (PAA) which is a high level of disinfectant was tested. Other
than PAA ortho-phthaladehyde (OPA) and alkaline buffered glutaraldehyde (GA)
were also tested.It was found that PAA had the most rapid and effective effect
on the biofilm.4 The ideal time of action was found to be 5 minutes PAA was
found to be effective in killing the matrix components –which was caused by
decrease in bacterial internal pressure due to permeability of the PAA for a
short period also it was found to be a strong oxidizing agents which releases a
lot of free ions causing an attack on bacterial components. 4. A variety of
approaches have been done to prevent the formation of bio-films on food
products, which include the usage of a wide range of products like disinfectants
which tend to be highly toxic to the cells, and usage of anti-microbial which
seem to be a far better option than chemical methods but due to excessive usage
have caused formation of resistant bacteria. A method was developed using Caprylic
acid (CAP) and Polygalacturonic (PG) acid in combination has been proved
to be effective against biofilms G24 

 

G25  References

1R. Donlan,
“Biofilms and Device-Associated Infections”, Emerging
Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 277-281, 2001.

2A. Junka, R. Rakoczy,
P. Szymczyk, M. Bartoszewicz, P. Sedghizadeh and K. Fija?kowski,
“Application of Rotating Magnetic Fields Increase the Activity of
Antimicrobials Against Wound Biofilm Pathogens”, Scientific
Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018.

3 Johnson
V, Webb T, Norman A, et al. Activated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Interact with
Antibiotics and Host Innate Immune Responses to Control Chronic Bacterial
Infections. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:9575. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08311-4.

4 Chino
T, Nukui Y, Morishita Y, Moriya K. Morphological bactericidal fast-acting
effects of peracetic acid, a high-level disinfectant, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in
tubing. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 2017;6:122. doi:10.1186/s13756-017-0281-1.sssssss

5 Rosenblatt
J, Reitzel RA, Vargas-Cruz N, Chaftari A-M, Hachem R, Raad I. Caprylic and
Polygalacturonic Acid Combinations for Eradication of Microbial Organisms
Embedded in Biofilm. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017;8:1999. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01999..

6 Archer
NK, Mazaitis MJ, Costerton JW, Leid JG, Powers ME, Shirtliff ME. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms:
Properties, regulation and roles in human disease. Virulence.
2011;2(5):445-459. doi:10.4161/viru.2.5.17724.