LITERATURE choices, work type and its relation with



This chapter reviews numerous studies that are significant to the dietary
patterns, food choices, work type and its relation with obesity. Reviewing of
literature is a critical step to writing a good research as it gives the
researcher a unbiased idea of how similar researches has been done in the past
and what results were obtained. It provides a deeper insight to the research topic.
Criticism and analysis are important to any research work.

 2.1 Prevalence of Obesity:

Obesity, which generally states
to excess body fat, has become a vital public health problem.  Having more weight than is considered normal
or healthy for one’s age and built is well-defined as overweight (Sterns, 2009).
It is occurrence continues to increase worldwide. As the prevalence of obesity rises so does the affliction
of its allied co-morbidities. Not only in affluent societies but also in
developing countries, Non- communicable diseases and their risk factors
including obesity are now becoming a significant problem (Whitson, 2000).

 In prosperous societies and emerging countries
like Pakistan obesity and other risk factors
of chronic or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are now emerging complications. In
Malawi, over the coming years (4 to 6) obesity
is predicted to rise. The prevalence of obesity in adults is currently
estimated at 4.6%.  To reduce the burden
of obesity partly depend on diagnosing and understanding the difficulties of
obesity. Interventions should be done to eradicate this disease (Watson, 2001).
Nutritionist are reminded to look for these complications in obese patients and
institute interventions highlighting the welfares of weight loss in obese

One third population of
American adults are obese, reports the CDS or Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. While more intrusive procedures, such as gastric bypass, have
gained popularity, diet and exercise is the first step in treating obesity. Many people fail in losing
weight simply because they are misinformed. They need awareness and seriousness
to change their lives. (Benjamin, 2017).

2.2 Nutritional screening:

 At nutritional risk or potentially at risk, is
the first step in recognizing subjects and who may assistance from proper
nutritional intervention. It is a rapid, modest and common procedure. Some
subjects may just need assistance and advice with eating and drinking; others
may need to be referred for more professional advice.

screening of obesity is the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may damage
health. (WHO, 2016). In this study, obesity refers to both overweight and
obesity. Measuring total body fat accurately requires refined technology which
is not readily accessible for purposes of the epidemiology of the disease.

BMI: A key index for relating weight to
height. BMI is a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height
in meters squared. (WHO, 2006). The World
Health Organization (WHO) adopted body mass index (BMI), which is calculated by
dividing the body weight in kilograms (Kg) by the square of the height in meters
(m), as a surrogate measure of total body fat.  BMI correlates well with the percentage body fat in
the young and middle aged where obesity is most prevalent. With this index,
obesity is defined when the value is equal to or more than 30Kg/m2.

Nutrition and Dietetics Institution recommends that a sensible approach to
eating and regular exercise will help to encourage a healthy lifestyle and prevent
weight gain in any stage of  life
(Wheeler, 2011). Using the Food Pyramid as a guide to healthy food choices,
choosing appropriate food portions sizes, avoiding excessive amounts of high
fat and high sugar foods will help maintain a healthy weight. Referral for
dietetic intervention may be necessary for guidance with weight loss (Wills,

Dietary patterns:

The frequency, proportion and the combination of
foods and drinks which are consumed most often (Smith, 2014).  Dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, variety
or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets, and the frequency
with which they are habitually consumed (S.M. Smith, 2014). The pattern of
one’s diet reflects their social, personal, cultural and environmental
experiences and influences (Rand, 2004). The content and nutritional
composition of the types of foods and drinks consumed is the key to assess and
determine the quality of diet. These characteristics are later compared to the
predetermined nutrient requirements of certain age, height, weight and gender
and nutrition adequacy standards which further throw on the quality of
diet.  Understanding the array of dietary
patterns in a population and their nutrient quality allows a complete
representation of the individual eating performances and assists in their
examination in relationship with varied health outcomes (Wright, 2015).

2.4 Dietary Habits of obese people

to “A Series of Systematic Reviews on the Relationship Between Dietary Patterns
and Health Outcomes (USDA, 2014)”, a research done by United States Department
of Agriculture in 2014, more promising results associated with body weight and
risk of prevalence of obesity were perceived with enhanced adherence to a
legumes, fruits, vegetables and whole wheat emphasized diet. Some studies also
reported more favorable body weight status over time with regular intake of
fish and legumes, moderate intake of dairy products (particularly low-fat
dairy) and alcohol, and low intake of meat (including red and processed meat),
sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, refined grains, saturated fat, cholesterol,
and sodium (Chan, 2011). There is moderate evidence that in adults increased
adherence to dietary patterns scoring high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
legumes, unsaturated oils, and fish; low in total meat, saturated fat,
cholesterol, sugar sweetened foods and drinks and sodium; and moderate in dairy
products and alcohol is associated with more favorable outcomes related to body
weight or risk of obesity, with some reports of variation based on gender,
race, or body weight status (Blanton, 2014). Limited and inconsistent evidence
from epidemiological studies examining dietary patterns derived using factor or
cluster analysis in adults found that consumption of a dietary pattern
characterized by vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and reduced-fat dairy
products tends to be associated with more favorable body weight status over
time than consumption of a dietary pattern characterized by red meat, processed
meats, sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, and refined grains (Cullen, 2014). The
dietary intake when compared to the current BMI will give a relative
relationship between the two variables, depicting that energy intake is the one
of the main reasons of obesity development in bankers.  

2.5 Bankers:

This study is related to the
working class, mainly bankers. Bankers can be suffering from this
epidemic.  Bankers usually spent a lot of
time in front of computers and eating a lot of  food leading them to obesity. This profession
is linked with null activity level. By spending a lot of time in fronts of
computers leads which results in obesity and its co- linked diseases.  

Certain careers
are linked with low physical activity. Workers in such jobs spend the most part
of their adult working lives less involved in physical activity if they don’t willfully
exercise outside of employed hours. This upsurges their risk of obesity and its
associated ailments. This study resolute the pervasiveness of obesity and
overweight and associated factors among workers of a financial institution in
Accra Metropolis, Ghana. The overall prevalence of obesity and
overweight among the bank workers was 55.6 % (17.8 % obese and
37.8 % overweight).

Non –
communicable diseases (NCDs) are the foremost causes of indisposition and
mortality in many developed and developing countries. Overwhelming marks from
epidemiological, potential unit and intervention studies, have interrelated
most NCDs to morbid lifestyle. The aim of this study was to limit the
prevalence of obesity and hypertension midst bankers in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured in
260 professional bankers from 56 bank branches in Lagos (AO Sekoni, AB Adelowo, EI Agaba, 2013). 

2.6 Causes

 Obesity happens when you take in extra
calories than you can burn through exercise and normal daily activities. Although
there are genetic, behavioral and hormonal stimuli on body weight. Your body
have these excess calories as fat.

can sometimes be outlined to a medical cause, such as Prader-Willi syndrome,
Cushing’s syndrome, and other diseases and conditions. However, these conditions
are rare and, in general, the principal causes of obesity are:


 You don’t burn as many calories, if you are
physically inactive. With a inactive lifestyle, you can take in more calories
every day than you use through exercise and normal daily activities.

Unhealthy diet and eating habits. 

If you
regularly eat more calories than you burn than weight gain is inevitable. And some
people diets are too high in calories and are full of fast food and
high-calorie beverages.

2.7 Risk factors

usually outcomes from a combination of causes and contributing factors,


Your genes may distress the amount of body fat you have, and
where that fat is distributed. Genetics may also plays an important role in how
efficiently your body alters food into energy and how your physique burns
calories during exercise.

2.7.2Family lifestyle.

 Obesity inclines to run in families. If one or both of
your parents are obese, your risk of being obese is high. That’s not only because
of genetics. Family members tend to share similar eating and activity habits.

2.7.3.      Unhealthy

 A high calorie diet, missing in fruits and vegetables,
full of fast food, and laden with high-calorie beverages and oversized portions
donates to weight gain.

2.7.6.      Age.

can happen at any age, even in young children. But as you age, hormonal changes
and a a reduced amount of active lifestyle upsurge your risk of obesity. In
addition, the amount of muscle in your body inclines to decrease with age. This
lower muscle mass leads to a lessening in metabolism. These ups and downs also
reduce calorie needs, and can make it tougher to keep off excess weight. If you
don’t intentionally control what you eat and become more physically active as
you age, you’ll expected gain weight.