Main native. These outcomes of labour market include

studies in the modern economic literature on immigration, particularly pause on
skill level and earning of the immigrant population in the host country.
Furthermore, these skills determine the impact of immigration on the
opportunities of native-born workers and on eventual expenditures in social
insurance programs (Borjas 1994:1667). Further, this research will briefly
include immigrant women participation and discrimination against them, relative
to immigrant men and native women..
There are limitations regarding the studies of immigrants´ performance and
participation in the labour market relative to natives (Borjas 1994). First
impact influencing immigrants is the less positive treatment at labour market,
they are offered low skilled which with time is improved depending on the
migrant qualifications. Developed countries seek highly educated immigrants,
who can perform better by satisfying the labour market demands. However there
are challenges and difficulties that impede immigrants to be part of labour
market, especially when it comes to native level. It
is important to approach immigrants to those of native. These outcomes of
labour market include activity rates, employment rates, un-employment rates and
earnings level. Moreover, it depends on several personal characteristics such
as gender, age, birth, education and qualification status and the time of
permanency or stay of immigrant in the host country. Due to the lackof space
not all factors will be highlighted, but few of them will be mentionedthat
influence the most. .

Qualifications are one of the important determinants of labour market outcomes.
Often immigrants and natives have different skills and abilities; hence firms
and business are automatically prone to hire one among them.  Labour market strategies are based on
selecting people who ensure a continued production of goods, a regular raise in
demand and push in wages. Thus, the more difference there is between native and
immigrants, the less competition there will be among them in the labour market.
Hence, immigration leads to reduction in wages or employment, depending on the
requirement of low-skilled or low-wages jobs. 
There are certain jobs that by nature require less training or low
education. Both of them purchase the product in the same way therefore thereis
no change in wages impact; this measurement is done according to the proportion
of immigrants in the population.  Furthermore,
he found evidences of how immigrants impact on native employment opportunities
through empirical evidence by tracing a positive image of their contribution to
the American economy. Borjas (1994) highlights how wages declined in past
decades, as recent migrants have been gradually integrating towards functioning
of labour market, by acquiring, over time, host country specific labour skills
and general knowledge (Chiswick 1978). As consequences, immigrants take over
native worker.Further
research found new facts that emphasizes other characteristics such as,
negative correlation between immigrants and native workers that impact on
earnings of unskilled native workers in labour market; during 1980s, it
verified, under macro effects of immigration, substantial increases in the
wages gap between workers by educational level by 10% and among them one third
was less skilled (Borjas et al 1992). New migrants have more skills, as
receiving countries have changed policies and increased their labour market
demands. In short these changes and impact have long-lasting effects, which
will continue to influence in one or other way not just immigrants and native
workers, also the labour market. Borjas
(1992) demonstrate in his analysis the economic impact of immigration depending
on difference in the skills and distributions of immigrants and natives. The
central finding of this literature is done by randomly selected sample of the
population of the source countries.  As a
result, it shows an understanding of the skill differentials among immigrants
and natives that have taken place with an analysis of the factors that motivate
only some persons in the source country to migrate by choosing particular
This evaluation is done by taking in consideration the time of entry and the
duration of stay over time. Beyond the level of earning gaps at entry, most
studies agree that earning gaps reduces with the time spent in the host
country; as immigrants improve their language skills in order to obtain more
education by gaining more knowledge and information of host place.
Other studies show that immigrants can influence the relative wages or
employment of natives. This is a consequence of the changing in the relative
supply of worker types. On the contrary it can increase the production.An
important contribution of migrants is attributed by the notion of human capital
and social capital. Both are complex and controversial. Summarizing the
numerous definitions that have appeared in the literature, human capital can be
defined as the set of individual’s characteristics such as the level and
quality of education, natural abilities, talents and experiences that are
results of an individual’s investment and that are relevant to economic
activity (Becker 1964 in Van Tubergen 2004:707). Not always these skills are easily
transferable from country to country affecting the immigrant’s employment rate,
which indicates that human capital is one of the explanatory factor involved in
the migrants  eventual success or
non-success (Chiswisk 2000:64-65). Without denying the importance of
immigrant´s human capital, that definitely contributes their successful
integration into host labour market, sociologist also appeal to external
factors such as opportunity structures, ethnic networks, social capital,
cultural capital to explain the employment patterns and income of immigrants.
Here, the main focus, due to lack of space, will be on the notion of social
capital. Social
capital is not easy to define as it is a multidimensional concept developed
mainly in the sociological field. Without going into too much detail of the
different definitions that emerged in the sociological literature, social
capital can be seen as a result of relationships between individuals unlike
human capital, which depends on individual characteristics and investment in
education, social capital generates economic returns only if individuals decide
to create long-term relationships. Synthesizing the meanings that emerge from
the broad literature, above all of sociological nature, the social capital can
be represented by trust; share values and by a set of relationships, norms and
institutions that facilitate economic relations and also reduce costs (Portes
1993:1322-1332). Furthermore,
immigrant’s labour success depends on whether they are favorably selected. The
concept of selectivity concerns the higher degree of positive selection
(Chiswik 2000:64-65). The more successful the immigrants will be on the labour
market the more positive integration will be or vice versa in case of
negativity selectively. For example, if a receiving country (e.g. Canada) is
favorable for selected immigration policy, therefore immigrants with a large
amount of human capital will result as favorable for the host society and for
them selves. Hence, the economic outcome will be positive (Chiswik 2000:65). It
is important for an immigrant to be motivated and ambitious when starting a new
life in new environments. On the contrary, less transferable skills and lack of
motivation will not help the individual to achieve success. An
important fact that influences hugely the labour market is the participation of
immigrant women. For several reasons, this issue of the labour market
participation of immigrant women is pertinent now. Initially, the immigration
of women was not employment-oriented, but was mainly for purposes of family
formation and reunification. The continued flow of immigration since 1994
accounted almost 50 percent of women among the migrants. Secondly, these flows
have brought a strong development in women´s participation and employment in
the labour market (OECD 2002) bringing changes in several family pattern and
gender participations. Despite this progress, immigrants´ women participation
falls behind that of men (OECD 2003). This depends on the experience compare
with those of immigrant male in labour market. 
Foreign women participate less in the labour market then do their male
counterparts. This can reveala handicap they face as regards the access to the
labour market.  This finding is supported
by Oaxaca decomposition method (1973), which shows that the individual
characteristic, such as level of education, age, material status and family
structure, does not account as much as the difference among the participation
rate of immigrant women and that of their counterparts (Husted et al 2000:).
Therefore, the impact of discrimination characteristics of immigrant women
cannot be let out when seeking to explain their entry into labour market.  Education is the principle factor that can
give and improve the chance for migrant women and facilitate the access into
the labour market.

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and Worswick (1993) examined so called “double-negative” effect on the earnings
of immigrant women, which is caused due to the impact of gender and birthplace
on earnings. They found that this double-negative effect on earning cannot be
generalized to all immigrant women, but it is quite marked for highly educated
women. Indeed, the conventionally rate ofearnings for women results much less
than that of men. For example, women from Pakistan are among those groups who
experience the double negative effect on wages ascomparedto women from Nordic
countries. India and Sri Lanka does not experience this effect at all.
Regarding Turkish and African women, who are more ambitious continue their path
toward participation in the labour market. In addition to discrimination there
are different factors such  as cultural
and language differences (Husted et al 2000).
Furthermore, Verloo (2006) argues multiple discriminations are based on
incorrect assumption of sameness or equivalence of the social categories which
are connected to inequalities and of the mechanisms and process that have
constituted them.