Science Fair: Research Paper I am interested in learning how different acids can affect the mission of gas on a base. This experiment is simplistic so it just seems easy. Vinegar and baking soda volcanoes always intrigued me. It always made me wonder if you could get a bigger and better reaction with a different vinegar or acid in general. The reason I always found the the reaction between the base, baking soda, and the acid, vinegar, is because you can really see the effervescence. A lot of other science experiments include surveys, time, and expensive tools you can only get from teachers and scientists. The baking soda and vinegar reaction is quick and you can add food coloring, paint, or other dyes to change the color and get the true effect (like the elephant’s toothpaste reaction).Elephant toothpaste is not a baking soda and vinegar reaction It’s more fun to see a reaction up close and have no need to make sure you’re out of range or not touching any “blasts” or “over-bubbles”. This experiment is also cheap, as white vinegar (the most common type of vinegar) is only around 3-$5 retail and Arm and Hammer baking soda is only around 5-$10 retail. Most people already have both products in their pantires, so this experiment is essentially “free”. Anyone can do this experiment. Hopefully, after reading this paper, you will try this experiment for yourself (and maybe even learn a little something too)! The experiment I am doing for the science fair is an acid and baking soda reaction. For the acid I will be using three different types of vinegars and for the base I will be using baking soda. The three types of vinegars I will be using will be apple cider, white wine, and rice wine. I will be seeing which vinegar will make the reaction emit more gas. I will be doing this with a little glass bottle, a black rubber stopper that fits perfectly in the little glass bottle has a hole on the top, and a 35mL syringe. I will have baking soda in the glass bottle and the vinegar in the syringe. I will insert the syringe in the hole on the top of the rubber stopper, At this point, the rubber stopper is already in the glass bottle. I will push the vinegar out of the syringe and it will fall into the rubber stopper hole creating the reaction because the the baking soda will be there to catch the vinegar. I will do the syringe and baking soda trials ten times over with each vinegar. The amount of gas emitted from the reaction inside the glass bottle will rise into the syringe. I will measure how much gas is emitted by seeing how far the syringe plunger goes up. At the end of the 30 trials, I will see which vinegar has produced more gas due to the reaction inside the glass bottle. My hypothesis for this experiment is: if the white wine vinegar is added to the baking soda, it will emit more gas then the apple cider and rice wine vinegars inside the syringe. The reason I think this is because white wine probably has the least amount of impurities. Apple cider vinegar has apples in it and rice wine has, of course, rice. It’s also a very common type of vinegar. White wine vinegar is a lot of times used for cooking and cleaning more than any other (except white vinegar). There are many uses for the baking soda and vinegar reaction. White about ½ cup of baking soda, 1 cup of vinegar, and hot water you can unclog your drain. The reaction between baking soda and vinegar will no only unclog your drain, but clean pans, washing machines, freshen towels, clean grouts, get stains off iron, clean dishwashers, clean toilet bowls, deodorize the outside of toilets, and even wash your hair! As you can see, the baking soda and vinegar reaction is usually used for cleaning in everyday life, because the reaction eats away at grime. Another use for vinegar, apple cider vinegar, is to help reduce sugar levels in the blood because it blocks the complete digestion of advanced carbohydrates. If you take a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar a day, your immune system will be dramatically boosted and you will have a much lower chance of getting sick. Rice wine vinegar is used most commonly in Asian cooking. Rice wine vinegar is used to accelerate flavor has it has a high vinegar content. It is used also as a condiment for many dishes like sushi, rice, and, mainly, sweet and sour dishes.http://www.couponcloset.net/uses-for-baking-soda-and-vinegar/https://www.livestrong.com/article/246887-health-benefits-of-rice-vinegar/ Vinegar is made through fermentation. When bacteria is added to anything containing ethanol alcohol, it breaks the ethanol down into byproducts like acetic acid. Things that contain ethanol alcohol that can be fermented down to vinegar are beer, cider, wine, and champagne. The way of using bacteria to ferment alcohol is called the “mother of vinegar”.https://www.thespruce.com/what-is-vinegar-1328647 The history of vinegar is first recorded in China around 1,200 B.C., but in 1,000 B.C. in ancient Rome, people made vinegar from many different tree fruits and used it for the dipping of bread. In Bible times, vinegar was used as medicine, as a drink, and for food. Residues from vinegar have been found in urns from ancient Egypt that date back to around 3,000 B.C. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates prescribed apple cider vinegar with honey mixed in as a type of antibiotic or medicine. Carthaginian general, Hannibal, used hot vinegar to destroy big rocks so his soldiers could pass through where they’re trying to go. Vinegar was also used in the Civil War. The use of vinegar was to protect against diseases such as scurvy. As you can see, vinegar has been used for centuries. Whether it has been cooking, cleaning, or using as a way of war.http://www.2ncmi.org/vinegar.html Although vinegar has been health benefits, in also has a bad side. Vinegar is very acidic, meaning that in almost every situation it needs to be diluted with something. If too much vinegar is drank, then it cause caustic burns in the esophagus. Vinegar can also destroy the enamel on your teeth, which is need to protect against cavities and teeth breakdown. Drinking too much vinegar is definitely not advised.https://www.livestrong.com/article/292871-what-are-the-dangers-of-drinking-vinegar/Baking soda has been around a long time. Sodium carbonate helped the ancient Egyptians make mummies and a cleaning product. Baking soda has been around a long time but it didn’t start to gain attention until the 19th century. A man named Alfred Bird developed the first version of baking powder to help his wife who was allergic to yeast. This baking powder was developed in 1843. In 1927, baking soda got huge publicity. Many magazines like McCall’s and Good Housekeeping told about how useful baking soda was. Particularly in the home.https://brightnest.com/posts/a-brief-history-of-baking-soda Baking soda is made from sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate can be manufactured by making carbon dioxide and ammonia go through table salt. Sodium carbonate is also naturally occuring. Trona can be mined from the ground and is used for sodium carbonate production. Whether it’s mined or manufactured, it has to be dissolved in a carbon dioxide solution where the sodium carbonate precipitates out. Both process are to maintain a nontoxic sodium bicarbonate.https://oconto.uwex.edu/files/2011/02/Baking-Soda.pdfThe way this reaction works in word form is this: baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) plus vinegar (acetic acid) yields carbon dioxide plus water, plus sodium ion, plus acetate ion. The most common chemical formula is this: NaHCO3+HC2H3O2?NaC2H3O2+H2O+CO2. This formula means that when acetic acid (vinegar) is added to sodium bicarbonate it makes sodium acetate. The sodium acetate plus water plus carbon dioxide (which is our effervescence) makes the reaction. NaHCO3 is our acetic acid, it means one atom of sodium, one atom of hydrogen, one atom of carbon, and three atoms of oxygen. HC2H3O2 is our sodium bicarbonate, it means one atom of hydrogen, two atoms of carbon, three atoms of hydrogen, and two atoms of oxygen. NaHCO3 is added to HC2H3O2. The rightwards arrow (?), which is found in the special characters section, means this reaction is one way, the baking soda and vinegar and carbon dioxide and water is impossible. NaC2H3O2 is the product of the sodium bicarbonate and vinegar combining to make our sodium acetate (also known as hot ice), which means one atom of sodium, two atoms of carbon, three atoms of hydrogen, and two atoms of oxygen. The sodium acetate is added to H2O (water) which is two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, and added to CO2 (carbon dioxide) which is one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. The carbon dioxide is our bubbles, the H2O is, of course, our water and the sodium acetate is our main. No part of this reaction could work without the other part. Chemical reactions need the product and reactions to do the job.http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_intro.htmlhttps://www.thoughtco.com/equation-for-the-reaction-of-baking-soda-and-vinegar-604043(Schrader Interview)In conclusion, for the science fair I will be doing a simple acid base reaction with three different types of vinegar and baking soda. I will see which type of vinegar will cause the base to emit more gas into the syringe. My hypothesis is that the white wine vinegar will cause the baking soda to release more gas because of yellow effervescence. This experiment will demonstrate how an acid will react with a base and only base and a base will react with an acid and only an acid. The reason I’m doing this certain experiment is because it is cheap, not dangerous, and fun to do.