The brands created household names like Amazon, Google

The communication
technologies that get advanced with the fast speed. People around the world get
connected through the Internet. The number increased from 350 million to more
than 2 billion. The creation of smart phones and the nonstop innovation fast
forward the development and the growth of Internet and social media (Soo, 2015). The uses of
mobile electronic gadgets make the access to social networking sites easier and
increase the usage of social media (Parsons, 2013, as cited in Charkas & Eltun, 2014). The
dominance of social media giants such as Youtube, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter
and Snapchat are the second waves of digital brands after Internet brands
created household names like Amazon, Google and Netflix (Wissman, 2017).

The fast evolution
of Internet enabled not only to search for information and communication
without any boundaries but also offered the opportunities to the internet users
to express their feelings and thoughts through social networks. In fact, the
time consuming on using social media is increasing gradually especially
teenagers spend up nine hours per day on social media platform nowadays. 30% of
the time are distributed for social media interaction. Most of the time namely
60%, they use mobile device to access online. The time spent on social media
every single day is roughly 116 minutes. (Asano, 2017).

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The social media
shifted the way produced and communicate with information. The content that
posted online used to be create by the content owners or media firms has go
through a fundamental change to a trend of anyone can create content which
known as User Generated content and use the social media to share it with
public. The connection between social media users is getting closer and with
the advancement of technology, they can voice their opinion or idea at a faster
rate (Vukasovic, 2013).

The revolution of
social networking sites has changed the way of communication and brought impact
to the marketing communication (Hutter, Hautz, Dennhardt & Fuller, 2013). Marketing
communications refer to the interactions, communication, and exposure to
marketing campaigns of brand. Due to the time consuming on social media is
increasing, the share of communication happened within the social media is also
increasing. This shows the marketing communication also progressively occurred
at social media sites. As stated by Kozinets et al. (2008), Merz et al. (2009) as cited in Hutter, Hautz,
Dennhardt & Fuller (2013), the transformation of audiences to become
an active creators and influencers from being passive readers in marketing.

As a results of
explosion on information on web, social media act as a communication medium
between consumers and marketers to build the brand relationship which is
deficient in the traditional platform. The interaction and collaboration
enhanced at this medium. The rising growth of customer numbers which enabled by
social networks recognised by the marketers to sell their products and causing
the dropping in clutter using traditional platform to cover a massive audiences
and not achieving the return on investment (Vukasovic, 2013).

The biggest
benefits that social media can contribute is free of charge. The brand company
can arouse the word of mouth discussion among the social networking users. Many
companies utilised the influence power of the opinion leaders because it can
increase the number of customers due to the information can be spread easily on
the internet. Referring to Fashion beauty monitor (2015), nowadays, the world
has changed to social media which bring forth the career of influencers who have the capability to make
an impact in the opinions or decision making of audiences towards a brand due
to the function of “follow” at the platform of social media. Readers
look more on the personalities or traits that embedded by the influencers who
are associating large number of following on social media sites. The trend of
influencer marketing in digital space is focus more on the advocacy, product
review and engagement with audiences rather than argue or coercive on certain
point of view.

Social media influencer had played an important
role in influencing the approach to brand themselves. One’s personal branding
and marketing tool can be the strategy used to manage the social media (Soo,
2015).

2.1.2 Personal Branding

Personal branding
is a concept which is similar to the development of product and promotional
strategies and it transformed into personal development and self-promotional
efforts. Personal branding is a concept of personal development and
self-promotional efforts as a derived from the similar basic concept of products and services (Dotta,
2010).

Personal brand is
about the unique attributes or different characteristics that you can offer in
the industry through special quality, experience and the method of presenting
them (Petruca, 2016). People with well-developed personal brand can get the
attention because they have the passion that embedded in themselves and attract
the people with same interest (Dalla-Camina, 2016 as cited in Petruca, 2016).

“Personal branding
includes a representation of a personality through a variety of mediums”
(Shyle, 2015, p. 1). In the era of explosion of social media, people can have
their personal brand through online media and the Internet (Shyle, 2015).

According
Bochantin (2017), “personal branding is a dynamic process”. It will not
permanent over time and assume it to be relevant in a long-term run. The
effectiveness on managing your platforms such as the social media,
interpersonal communication, the way interact with people and the list goes on,
the comments from the audiences should be evaluated to control our own
reputation in the marketplace.

Personal branding
is going to add on self-actualization and it is an essential tactics to
construct one’s potential (Kawano & Obu, 2013). Personal branding has its
purpose of using individual’s strength to build his brand. It gives the chance
to have a good interpersonal linkage and attain information that contributes in
develop careers and businesses (Kawano & Obu, 2013).

The definition of
personal branding is marketing strategies which a person adopts with the goal
of promote his own personal characteristics. Personal branding is largely used
by those who highlight the social integration, support or exclusivity (Zarkada,
n.d.).

Two types of
personal branding available which are inside and outside branding. The
definition of inside
branding is interpretation of the individual’s strength through self-reflection while outside branding
means presenting
strong points as a specialty. Therefore, personal branding should be
started from self-affirmation and self-efficacy.  (Kawano & Obu, 2013). Maintain the
consistency of the brand across all the platforms is the key to owning a
successful personal brand.

The social media
networking enabled one’s influence sphere to expand. This platform can be used
to define and describe a person or a brand. The success of social media
marketing work on personal brand does not occur overnight or happen in a short
term. (Soo, 2015). As stated by Glassman (2012) in Soo (2015), it is a
cumulative process which developed bit by bit with persistence and
consistency. 

The reason of
building up personal branding is to maintain and increase one’s reputation
whether is online or offline. Good reputation bring the advantages of more
customers, recommendation, reviews from people and increasing the word-of-mouth
marketing. Secondly, personal branding can helps in building brand equity. In
order to add the reliability and expert status about you. Lastly, the reason of
manage personal brand would be to associate with particular ideas. From time to
time, the focus on what you want to do get clearer and specific. It helps in
increasing your expertise of that focus and the influential field will be grow
stronger and get recognition from people with the similar interest. Therefore,
personal branding is very important to give chance for us to prove the ability
among them (Sagdati, 2015).

Individual has the
power to manage an image of they wished to show to the publics when they
controlled their own personal brand.

2.1.3 Social Media
Influencer

The growth of
social media platform has bring impact of an increasing amount of social media
influencers who have large number of followers online (Marsh, 2017). This group
of people namely influencers are reached by the advertisers who want to use
their platform to promote and sell products (Marsh, 2017).

The influencers
act as an intermediate person who transmit and filter the ideas and messages
from mass media and send forward to the public out there on digital form. The
influencer often digest the information and explain the message to his
audiences to make them understand. The process of two-step flow of
communication that practised by the social media influencers are firstly,
information broadcast from mass media to influencer who put concentration to
the mass media communications. Secondly, they are giving explanation to their
followers. They offer opinion by offering recommendation to the readers to buy
advertised products or services. The three components of trust, brand and
expertise is important in online influence. Chialdini’s influence principles
has a total of six which involved reciprocity, consistency, social proof,
authority, liking, and scarcity. The trust towards the influencer was take time
to build up. The potential customers can know better and informed the products
that opinion leaders promoted. The marketing strategy used by companies on
recruiting the influencers’ power can generate the positive business outcome.
In order to stand out among the large numbers of social media influencers
online, one should have the criteria of credibility which means he must own a
representation of positive image, being consistent in the relationship with his
own audiences and outside of his audiences and lastly, he must has a great
exposure in mass media, in another word, a strong base of followers as he done successfully
for the previous campaign (Ioanid, Militaru & Mihai 2015).

The expanding of
social media in this digital era give the opportunity to the influencers to
gain popularity and have a connection with their consumer peers. These
self-managing social media influencers shared their thoughts, opinions and
brand storytelling to persuade and opinion changing dialogue in the space of
digital with the use of online technology. Influencers are known as masters of
electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). The involvement of online media like blogs,
Facebook, Youtube, Facebook and Instagram can help the influencer to gain
followers. The content that the influencers share online or cultivated
themselves can gathered the followers with the same interests. They open up a
space to let the readers to join their personal narratives. The image of
influencers which more relatable to the followers who read their shared content
through posts, pictures and messages because they seems to be more close to us
as compared to the recognized celebrities or actors. The relatable and credible
sources are important messengers to consumers who look for reference on
advertised products (Forbes, 2016).

The factor which
influencers are managing brand online involved the driven by the aspiration to
reach more people and become opinion leaders who influence their readers. Other
than that, 49 percent of them have the reason of desiring to produce a good
quality information to their followers. 29 percent of influencers with the goal
of portraying their good image so there are a number of them who are taking
opportunity to work with non-profit organisation (Morrison, 2015).